Articles should be written in English. Spelling (either British or American) should be consistent throughout.
Editorial Guidelines JAS
Nothing should be put in a non-roman script unless it is essential for the purpose of the article or review. Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac and Greek can be printed subject to the following considerations:
- Anything which is to be put into any non-roman script must be typed with absolute clarity.
- Vocalization of material in Arabic, Hebrew or Syriac script should be omitted unless it is essential for the argument.
- Transliterated material is satisfactory for most purposes and is essential for obscurer scripts.
The following transliteration system must be observed; the JAS system must be used consistently throughout, except for quotations.
Transliteration of Consonants
ʾ – b – t – th – j -ḥ – kh – d – dh – r – z – s – sh – ṣ – ḍ – ṭ – ẓ – ʿ – gh – f – q – k – l – m – n – h – w – y
- ʾ (hamza) is not to be used in initial position
- examples: al-anf not al-ʾanf, Aḥmad not ʾAḥmad, amīr al-umarāʾ not ʾamīr al-ʾumarāʾ
Short and Long Vowels
- a/ā, i/ī, u/ū
- examples : Ālāʾ, āfāq, ūlū, uṣūl, īmān, amīr, Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Majālis al-ʿulamāʾ, Bashshār ʿAwwād Maʿrūf
- examples: sayf, ṣawt
The Definite Article
- examples: al-sayf, al-kitāb
- examples: Irshād al-arīb ilā maʿrifat al-adīb, Ibn Abī Dāʾūd
Feminine Ending of Nouns
- risāla , Fāṭima l-Zahrāʾ
Prepositions Preceding Indefinite Nouns
- fī madīna, bi-khaṭṭ, li-ṣāḥib
Prepositions Preceding Definite Nouns and Pronouns
- fī l-madīna, bi-l-ʿaql, li-l-ṣāḥib, bi-llatī, li-lladhīna, fī llatī
Conjunctions wa and fa
- wa-muʾānasa, wa-l-muʾānasa, fa-muʾānasa, fa-l-muʾānasa
Prepositions and Conjunctions Preceding Indefinite Nouns Beginning with Hamza
- li-stiqbāl, wa-stiqbāl, li-amīr, wa-amīr
- ṣāḥibuhu, ṣāḥibuhā
- ʿarabī (not ʿarabiyy), ʿarabiyya (not ʿarabīya)
- Abū l-Ṭayyib, Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr, Ibn Jinnī, al-Mufaḍḍal al-Ḍabbī, Imruʾ al-Qays
- At the beginning of a sentence names with the article al- begin with capital letter: Al-Mubarrad.
Familiar Arabic Places and Names
- Familiar Arabic places or names and other words found in the Oxford English Dictionary should generally follow that spelling except when part of a longer transliterated Arabic text: Cairo, Medina, Algiers, Abbasid, Sufism, wadi, etc.
- Authors writing on Arabic dialects will employ the systems most suited to their needs, but should explain their system at the beginning of their notes.
Text should be kept as plain as possible; neither justification nor automatic or manual hyphenation should be used. The first line of a paragraph should be indented, except after a blank line, a (sub)heading or a block quotation (see below).
Abstract & Keywords
Articles must have a short abstract (5-10 lines long) and a maximum of 6 keywords on the first page.
Do not use full stops in abbreviations which consist of sets of initials (GAL not G.A.L.). Other abbreviations (but not contractions – see below) should be followed by full stops. Retain full stops for initials in personal names: A.F.L. Beeston (without a space between the A. the F. and the L.).
Apart from the rule that no space separates abbreviations of personal names, there should be a space after any abbreviation which is followed by a full stop: p. 63.
General abbreviations should follow the Oxford English Dictionary.
i.e., and e.g., should be followed by a comma.
Abbreviations of journal titles and well-known encyclopaedias, etc., must be those commonly used: EI, EI2, EI3, EQ, JAS, JESHO, SI.
BCE, CE, and AH follow the date. All Islamic dates should be given in the form 700/1300 (i.e., AH followed by CE). None of these abbreviations has full stops.
Complex hierarchies of numbered or lettered headings in articles should be avoided unless essential for clarity.
Italics must be indicated by using an italic font. Ensure that all diacritics and accents remain clear. Use italics for the titles of printed books and journals, but do not italicize the word “Koran” or books of the Bible.
Titles of series will be in roman and should not be italicized.
Foreign words, except those which have become naturalized, are set in italics, as is material transliterated from foreign scripts, on which see below.
Italics are used for abbreviations where the original full words were in italic.
Foreign words should be used in their English naturalized forms, without italics or diacritics, unless they form part of the text in the original language.
For quotations within text, use double quotation marks; single quotation marks should be reserved for quotes within quotes.
When a quotation forms part of a longer sentence, include the full stop within the quotation only if it consists of a grammatically complete sentence. Otherwise, the full stop or comma follows the closing quotation mark.
Words and quotations in italic transliteration or non-roman script do not need quotation marks. Any material added to a quotation, including [sic], should appear in square brackets.
Sources of quotations should be given in footnotes.
Quotations longer than about three lines (30 words approx.) should be indented without quotation marks.
Articles should give shortened versions of bibliographical references in the footnotes:
Farābī, Mūsīqā, I, 122-131; Rahman, Health and Medicine, 59-90; Perry, Layered Bread, 89-90; Waines, Food, 222-223; Waines and Marin, Muzawwar, 292.
The details of the sources are given in a complete list of references at the end of the article, first primary sources, then secondary sources. Authors should ensure that bibliographic information supplied is complete and consistent. JAS uses the following conventions:
- Author’s names are given in the form used in the original source.
- For more than three authors or editors, et al. is used.
- Book titles are in italic; main words capitalized (but see capitalization of transliterated titles, above).
- Titles and subtitles are separated by a colon, regardless of the original form.
- Subtitles begin with a capital letter.
- Series titles are in roman and accompanied by square brackets.
- Journal titles are in italic; titles of articles are in roman without quotation marks.
- Arabic numbers are used for series numbers, regardless of the original form.
- Roman numbers are used for volumes of books, regardless of the original form.
- Roman page numbers are always lower case, regardless of the original form.
- Bibliographical details should normally be consistently Anglicized, e.g., “Cairo” not “al-Qāhira”, “Munich” not “München”, vol. rather than Bd., regardless of the original form.
- Only first or main place of publication is given.
- Names of publishers should be given.
- Names of medieval authors should be given in full where there is real danger of confusion.
Al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad, al-Mūs q l-kabīr, ed. by Ghattās ʿAbd al-Malik Khashaba, 2 vols., Cairo: Dār al-Kutub, 2009
- Rahman, Fazlur, Health and medicine in the Islamic Tradition. Change and Identity, Chicago: ABC International Group, 1998
- Perry, Charles, The Taste for Layered Bread among the Nomadic Turks and the Central Asian Origins of Baklava, in: Sami Zubaida and Richard Tapper, A Taste of Thyme. Culinary Cultures of the Middle East, London and New York: Tauris 1994, 2002
- Waines, David, Food and Drink, in: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾan, 5 vols. + index, Leiden: Brill, II, 216-223
- Waines, David and Manuela Marin, Muzawwar. Counterfeit Food for Fast and Fever, in: Der Islam, 69 (1992), 289-301
- Only book and article titles in English should have the main words capitalized. Titles in other languages must follow the normal practice for the language in question.
- For French capitalize the first word of a title, even if the title begins with an article:
La critique poétique chez les Arabes, Traité d’éthique, L’amour courtois en Orient…
- Transliterated Arabic titles should be capitalized as follows:
Kitāb al-Bukhalāʾ, Laṭāʾif al-maʿārif, al-Mufaṣṣal fī ʿilm al-ʿarabiyya, Ṭabaqāt al-muʿtazila, Tārīkh Baghdād, Sharḥ Kitāb Sībawayhi, Sharḥ al-Mufaṣṣal, Murūj al-dhahab.
Footnote numbers in the text (numbered consecutively throughout) should be clear (not too small) and should not be accompanied by brackets or other marks. They should be in superscript numbers above the line of writing: Kitāb al-Ḥayawān.63
Footnote markers should be placed after any punctuation which appears at the end of the sentence, phrase or clause to which the footnote is attached.
In the footnotes themselves, each note should begin with the footnote number (in superscript and not followed by any full stop or other punctuation).